Cancers can be divided into myeloid leukemias , herpes virus infections , myelodysplasia, myeloproliferative syndromes, and lymphoid malignancies ; neoplasms of specific organs (e.g. skin, head and neck , lung, breast, gastrointestinal , genitourinary, gynecologic, prostate, and bone); and cancers of unknown primary site.
Signs and symptoms of hematologic neoplasms occur because of absence of mature cells, such as granulocytes, lymphocytes, or platelets. Patients exhibit increased susceptibility to infections and impaired hemostasis.
Common signs and symptoms of cancer are anemia, pallor, fatigue, weakness, dyspnea on exertion, anorexia, fever, and organ-specific conditions.
Chemotherapy and radiation therapy are the mainstays of cancer treatment. Both types of therapies are associated with severe complications, which should be addressed by the dental provider before, during, and after cancer treatment.
Apart from antineoplastic treatment, many patients receive adjuvant therapy for the prevention and treatment of opportunistic infections, to increase specific cell types, such as neutrophils or red blood cells, and for the prevention and treatment of nausea using antiemetic medications.